In the chapter he asks why they went back to their old habits, and reminds them of when he visited them. 1 Now I say, as long as the heir is a child, he does not differ at all from a slave although he is owner of everything, 2 but he is under guardians and managers until the date set by the father. One hypothesis on this point, viz. Thus, Paul would have visited the region on his second missionary journey (… He then comes at length to his inner experiences, connected with his highest glory and with his deepest and most trying weaknesses. the two states being brought into distinct contrast. I can see no reason here for making the clause interrogative: the rendering I am therefore become an enemy to you is quite in harmony with the context, which assumes the existence of some actual estrangement. Augustine's words tend in that direction-accepit stimulum carnis. Others identify the rapture with the trance in the temple, and the vision and commission connected with it, which himself describes in Acts 22:17-20, as Spanheim, Lightfoot, Rinck, Schrader, Osiander, Wieseler. 6. The key introductory issue in Galatians is the destination. Baxter thought the disease may have been stone-his own torment; his tormentor is preserved in the British Museum. Generally, that is the view of Flatt, Billroth, Emmerling, Rückert, Meyer, De Wette, Professor Lightfoot, Alford, Howson, Chandler. The language of Irenaeus is vague indeed, yet it seems to refer to corporeal ailment; for in illustrating the infirmities of the apostle, he adds, as given in the Latin version, homo, quoniam ipse infirmus et natura mortalis, 5.3,1. Therefore, at his second visit. See also Acts 14:9. See Howson, Lectures on St. Paul, p. 72, 2d edition. Am I become your enemy, because I tell you the truth? Anthony's fire,” in which there is not the least idea of supernatural agency. “After all the love and devotion you showed to me your spiritual father, have I now become your enemy by telling you the truth of Christ and urging you to hold firmly to it???”. Schaefer), whereas in the passive sense it takes the dative. Meyer connects ὥστε directly with τίς οὖν ὁ μακαρισμὸς ὑμῶν, but the connection is better taken with the entire verse or paragraph-not a direct conclusion, as the result of the previous statement. In these examples from Luke-and twice the reference is to Paul, Luke 13:9, Luke 23:1 -the look is one of earnest and strong vision, and therefore the occurrence of the same verb in Luke 23:1 cannot form any ground for the opinion which we are controverting; for in making a virtual apology the apostle does not say, “Pardon me, I did not see,” but “I wist not”-perhaps = I forgot at the moment—“that he was the high priest.” The allusion also to the “large letters” in which he wrote the Galatian Epistle, and to the marks of the Lord Jesus which he bore, admit of a different and satisfactory interpretation. So generally Gerson, Luther, Calvin, Osiander, Calovius. This notion is wholly unwarranted by the pointed words. Abbreviation: Gal. 4 I mean that the heir, as long as he is a child, is no different from a slave, 1 though he is the owner of everything, 2 but he is under guardians and managers until the date set by his father. Opera, ed. Zeschius de stimulo carnis, in the Sylloge Dissertationum of Hasaeus and Ikenius, vol. Thus 2 Corinthians 1:8-10 —“For we would not, brethren, have you ignorant of our trouble which came to us in Asia, that we were pressed out of measure, above strength, insomuch that we despaired even of life: but we had the sentence of death in ourselves, that we should not trust in ourselves, but in God which raiseth the dead; who delivered us from so great a death, and doth deliver; in whom we trust that He will yet deliver us.” These remarkable words have been referred by many, as Neander and Wieseler, to the tumult at Ephesus, as told in Acts 19. after the apostle's intercourse with the charming Thecla, as related in the legendary Acts. The perfect γέγονα expresses the change as over, and as resulting in a permanent state-Am I become your enemy? He puts the conclusion politely and delicately in the form of a question instead of direct assertion. If we were even allowed to repeat the songs and voices, still language would be wholly inadequate as a vehicle, for words want power to bear on them a description of the “far more exceeding and eternal weight of glory.” But how he reached the third heaven he knew not, only it was under a swift and sudden spell-he was snatched away, and by no self-analysis could he unravel the psychological mystery. Others translate: ‘Therefore (because ye loved me so much) I have become (in the opinion of the Judaizing teachers) your enemy—by telling you the truth.’ In the Judaizing pseudo-Clementine writings Paul is called an ‘enemy,’ and ‘lawless’ or ‘antinomian’ Some substitute ‘hateful to you’ for ‘jour enemy’ (taking the Greek word in the passive sense, as Romans 5:10; Romans 11:18). It was fourteen years before he wrote his second epistle to the Corinthians. . May not this help to explain the allusion in 1 Thessalonians 2:18, “We would have come unto you, but Satan hindered us?” This buffeting might produce nervous tremors, apprehensions, and a chronic lowness of spirits. American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. The context agrees with such a sense. How would Paul (potentially) become their enemy? Tertullian says: Sed et ipse datum sibi ait sudem . He proposes to give them-for he was forced to it-a specimen of his glories and his infirmities, his enjoyments of visions and revelations-those states of spiritual ecstasy in which, with a partial or total cessation of self-consciousness, he was brought into immediate communing with the Master, beheld His glory, and listened to His voice; in which truth in its beauty and power was flashed upon him, and glimpses into the glories and mysteries of the spiritual world were suddenly vouchsafed to him. He speaks sharply of the opponents (Gal 4:17–18) and pastorally to the Galatians (Gal 4:19–20). Such a stimulus could not be said to be given him by God as a special means of humbling him, and in coincidence with superabundant visions and revelations. In another allusion, in a passage where he is discussing the power of Satan, he simply says: In sanctos humiliandos per carnis vexationem. 439, 19, p. 279, vol. Nor does this interpretation much help him; for certainly the apostle felt at liberty to record what was said to him in the temple ecstasy, though it is possible that some other portion of that revelation may come under the category of “unutterable utterances.” At all events, the two accounts do not present any palpable data for their identification; so that the period and place of the “visions and revelations” are unmarked as an epoch in the history of the Acts of the Apostles. Galatians 4:1-31—Read the Bible online or download free. that feeble or defective utterance is meant, has been suggested by the statement of the apostle, when he says that, in the judgment of his opponents, his “speech was contemptible.” This adverse criticism, however, does not refer to articulation, but to argument; for he “came not with the enticing words of man's wisdom.” Still the words may imply that his oratory had some drawbacks, which made it inferior in power to his epistolary compositions. And your temptation which was in my flesh ye despised not, nor loathed; but received me as an angel of God, even as Christ Jesus. AMPC. Am I therefore become your enemy, because I tell you the truth? The change was neither in the truth nor its apostle, but in themselves. So contrary was it to all experience, so little was he under the guidance of ordinary consciousness, and of the common influences of space and time, that he could not tell whether he was in the body or out of the body. But there are allusions to some sickness or other peculiar malady in other portions of the second Epistle to the Corinthians so striking and peculiar, that there is every probability of their identity with this ἀσθένεια. (1.) Note on Paul’s “Infirmity in the Flesh”—“The Thorn in the Flesh.”, Galatians 4:13-15. οἴδατε δὲ ὅτι δἰ ἀσθένειαν τῆς σαρκὸς εὐηγγελισάμην ὑμῖν τὸ πρότερον, καὶ τὸν πειρασμὸν ὑμῶν ἐν τῇ σαρκί μου οὐκ ἐξουθενήσατε οὐδὲ ἐξεπτύσατε· ἀλλ᾿ ὡς ἄγγελον θεοῦ ἐδεξασθέ με, ὡς χριστὸν ᾿ιησοῦν. But mere headache, grievous and overpowering, could scarcely have produced such an effect as is implied in the verbs “despised not nor loathed.” Its accompaniments or results might, however, have this tendency. I can see no reason here for making the clause interrogative: the rendering I am therefore become an enemy to you is quite in harmony with the context, which assumes the existence of some actual estrangement. These persecutions, whether from Judaizers or other foes, were so bound up with his work, that he could scarcely seek in this special and conclusive form to be delivered from them, Galatians 4:8-10. He had been describing many of his outer sufferings, and the last of them, referred to so solemnly and under an adjuration, must have made an indelible impression on him-the kind of ignominy and humiliation attaching to his undignified mode of escape from Damascus—“through a window, in a basket was I let down by the wall.” He almost shrinks from telling the adventure: such is its nature that he is afraid that his sober statement may not be credited, and therefore it is prefaced, “The God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, which is blessed for evermore, knoweth that I lie not.” Perhaps, however, these words belong to the previous catalogue of sufferings, or they form a preface to some other statements, which after all have been withheld. Matthias, as his wont is, would alter the punctuation, and connect ἀληθεύων with the next verse. to them. πῇξαι ἀνὰ σκολόππεσσι,-or for impaling a person, Eurip. So then have I become your enemy by telling you the truth? And I know such a man, whether in the body or without the body I cannot tell, God knoweth, that was caught up to paradise, and heard unutterable utterances, which it is not lawful for a man to speak.” This repetition with a difference refers apparently to two raptures; and we may almost infer from the construction, broken and resumed, asserted and repeated, that the remembrance of the indescribable glory, and his untraceable translation into it, produced a momentary maze or mental bewilderment like that which preceded or followed the mysterious ascensions. Nam caro hic, meo judicio, non corpus, sed partem animae nondum regeneratam significat. 15). Sons and Heirs. He has not turned against them as they have turned against God, he is only trying to help them understand how damaging the Judaizers teaching was to them. Galatians definition, a book in the New Testament, written to the Christians in Galatia. The “third heaven” is evidently the highest heaven-it was no common honour; and paradise may not be a distinct, loftier, or remoter region, but perhaps a portion of the same glorious abode. lxxviii. 16.Am I therefore become your enemy? Reiff. Nevertheless he told them no new truth at that second visit. I. (4.) In Galatians 4:16, Paul says, 16 Am I therefore become your enemy, because I tell you the truth? This opinion is alluded to by Chrysostom- τινὲς μὲν οὖν κεφαλαλγίαν τινὰ ἔφασαν. The genitive is probably used because ἐχθρός is a virtual substantive-Am I become the hated of you? But from that stoning there was an immediate recovery, and it could scarcely be the “thorn in the flesh.” See Introduction. The fool and sinner hate, the righteous love, faithful reproof (Psalms 141:5; Proverbs 9:8). Galatians 4:16-18 ; Galatians 4:19-31 ; JOHN CEREGHIN. The term ἐχθρός is taken in a passive sense by Estius, Koppe, Rosenmüller, Trana, and Meyer in his second edition. Nor can the interpretation of δἰ ἀσθένειαν in the paper referred to be sustained. The Judaizers designated him 'that enemy' (Clement, 'Recogn.' In Luke 22:56 it depicts the searching survey of the damsel in the act of detecting Peter as one of the twelve- καὶ ἀτενίσασα αὐτῷ. Pelagius, while recording the opinion that persecutions are meant-persecutiones aut dolores-adds: Quidam enim dicunt eum frequenter dolore capitis laborasse: ad 2 Corinthians 12 Jerome, too, in giving other conjectures, speaks in general terms: Aut certe suspicari possumus, apostolum eo tempore quo primum venit ad Galatas aegrotasse . The thorn was “given him” by God, and was also “an angel of Satan that he may buffet me”-the last clause describing the action not of the thorn, but of the angel of Satan. For. Wieseler also labours hard to prove against Ebrard and Meyer, that the ἄῤῥητα ῥήματα are not things impossible, but only unlawful for a man to utter: die nicht gesagt werden dürfen,-quae non licet homini loqui. To “despair even of life,” implies a period of suffering so tedious and heavy that it gradually extinguished all hope of recovery. Your fitness, knowledge, compassion and ability to show mercy is a result of how you have cultivated those disciplines in 2018. 5. The truth was Christ's, and he dares not compromise it; himself was Christ's, and in Christ's spirit he “endures all things for the elect's sake.” And as the truth endangered in Galatia was truth alike precious and prominent in the gospel-truth resting on the perfection of Christ's work, and involving the freeness of His salvation-it must be upheld at all hazards. p. 581, Migne. See more. The verb ἀληθεύω occurs only once in the Septuagint - in Genesis 42:16, Αἰ ἀληθεύετε η} οὐ, "Whether there be any truth in you" (Authorized Version and Hebrew); and once besides in the New Testament - in Ephesians 4:15, Ἀληθεύοντες ἐν ἀγάπῃ, where the verb denotes, apparently, not merely being truthful in speech, but the whole habit of addiction both to uprightness and to God's known truth; for we can … per dolorem, ut aiunt, auriculae vel capitis (De Pud. Not a few, perhaps led by the stimulus carnis of the Vulgate, take the phrase to mean temptation to incontinence. Galatians 4:16 Context. At a later period, as we have seen, the Judaizers called him ὁ ἐχθρὸς ἄνθρωπος. The thorn was employed by this evil spirit as a means of buffeting him. III. That the apostle saw the divine essence is maintained by Augustine, Anselm, Aquinas; but what he saw he tells not, what he heard could not be disclosed. Probably, as this name was given to the garden of Eden, the scene of original innocence, it was transferred to that peculiar sphere of the third heaven where human spirits are gathered together in restored purity and felicity, in the immediate presence of God on His throne-that paradise where the Saviour unveils His glory, and admission into which He promised to the penitent thief on the cross. The Galatians knew it so well that the merest allusion was sufficient for them. Thomas Aquinas gives as one opinion, not his own, morbus Iliacus, seu viscerum dolor.Basil held the opinion that the thorn was some disease; for, treating of the use of medicine, he speaks of it in connection with, or under the same category as, the healing of the impotent man at Bethesda, Job's affliction, and the ulcered beggar Lazarus. viii. Though it is a common remark, that truth begets hatred, yet, except through the malice and wickedness of those who cannot endure to hear it, truth is never hateful. THE MEANING OF THE LAW GALATIANS 4:21-31 Galatians 4:21-31 (KJV) 4:21 Tell me, ye that desire to be under the law, do ye not hear the law? The objection, that Paul would have written “in Ephesus,” and not vaguely “in Asia,” if he had alluded to that city, is without real force, though he generally so names it, as in the first epistle, 1 Corinthians 15:32; 1 Corinthians 16:8. KJ21. 3 So also we, while we were children, were held in bondage under the elemental things of the world. That the visitation had wrought out its purpose is apparent from many allusions, and from this late record of his unprecedented honours, for he does not seem to have told them before. In most of the biblical texts, and certainly here in Galatians 5:16, the meaning of the spirit is the Spirit of God (although the reader should be aware that a small percentage of commentaries interpret this as the renewed human spirit). Not at his first visit, commentators reply, for then he was as an angel to them. v.), and his editor Rigalt wonders at the opinion. That he might be humble was God's purpose; that he might be humiliated was the purpose of Satan's angel,-that is, brought into contempt, and restrained in his work, his influence lessened, and himself harassed and agonized. Yet he speaks of himself as a man caught up, of passing from one region to another, and of hearing words. So is it with backsliders and apostates; the truth and its minister they once loved they often now dread and hate. Amid all his enthusiasm and chivalry, he needed frequent comfort and assurance; so that we find the voice saying to him at Corinth, “Be not afraid;” in his confinement in Jerusalem, “Be of good cheer;” and during the voyage to Rome, “Fear not.” Acts 18:9; Acts 23:11; Acts 27:24. Others, again, take the malady to be defective vision, and the opinion is based to a large extent on what he says in the verses prefixed to this Essay: “I bear you record, that if it had been possible, ye would have plucked out your eyes and have given them to me.” The theory is plausible, but it wholly wants proof, unless some unauthorized additions be made to the inspired statements. Galatians 4:16. ὥστε is often used in the sense of therefore to introduce an imperative or an affirmative conclusion in the Epistles of Paul, but not an interrogation. If communications of the more common kind, like those vouchsafed to Daniel, produced such debility and reaction, what would be the result of such a bewildering rapture into paradise, and the visions which followed it? Cardinal Hugo condescended to the time of the temptation, viz. The New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures is published by Jehovah’s Witnesses. Nor in this letter, for they have not as yet read it. While the apostle could go far in the way of accommodation to prejudice, and in matters indifferent, he would on no account sacrifice any element of truth. Bipont. ii. If his nervous system had been weakened by previous manifestations, might not this last and grandest honour bring on cerebral exhaustion, paralysis, or epileptic seizure, with all those results on eye, feature, tongue, and limb which are so often and so shockingly associated with it? Gregory the Great describes the apostle after his rapture thus: Ad semetipsum rediens contra carnis bellum laborat.-Moral. c. 29, p. 832, vol. Nay, he had said to the same church, 1 Corinthians 2:3, “I was with you in weakness, and in fear, and in much trembling:” the weakness was probably physical weakness, nervous susceptibility increased by his intense anxiety as to the results of his preaching. That he was blinded at the moment is true, but he recovered his sight when there “fell from his eyes as it were scales.” All miracles appear to be perfect healings, and restorations of vision are surely no exceptions. Galatians synonyms, Galatians pronunciation, Galatians translation, English dictionary definition of Galatians. Now the τῇ σαρκί here appears to be parallel to the ἐν τῇ σαρκί μου of Galatians 4:13 -something which had its origin in those superabundant revelations, which vexed and humiliated the apostle, and was of a nature so visibly painful, and withal so offensive, that it became a trial to spectators and listeners. What then is their response now that he is speaking stern but true words in order to try to put them right. . Hom. There had been mutual ascriptions of blessedness because they enjoyed the labours of such a benefactor. Thecla's heathen mother complains of her as wholly absorbed in Paul's preaching, and waiting on it “like a cobweb fastened to the window” in which she sat; and it is in this legend, so old that Tertullian refers to it, that the apostle's appearance is described- ἄνδρα μικρὸν τῇ μεγέθει, ψιλὸν τῇ κεφαλῇ, ἀγκύλον ταῖς κνήμαις, εὐεκτικόν, σύνοφρυν, μικρῶς ἐπίρινον, χάριτος πλήρη.-Acta Apostolorum Apocrypha, p. 41, ed. . ASV. One is amazed at the work which men with a strong will can brace themselves up to do in the midst of extreme suffering and weakness. Galatians 4:16. is often used in the sense of therefore to introduce an imperative or an affirmative conclusion in the Epistles of Paul, but not an interrogation. This theory appears to suit all the conditions of this mysterious malady. Regulae Fusius Tractatae, Opera, vol. Galatians 4:16 Paul, here, is trying to get the Galatians to come back to the gospel after going astray. He had not been counted their enemy at his first visit: he implies that he had since then, before his now writing; so that the occasion of his telling them the unwelcome truth must have been at his second visit (Acts 18:23 : see 'Introduction'). lib. Hours of dreadful anticipation would in that case have been spared him. Calvin says, more distinctly, Ego sub hoc vocabulo comprehendi arbitror omne genus tentationis quo Paulus exercebatur. 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